Some horses present with skin inflammation (dermatosis of allergic origin) with significant irritations which can lead to hives.
This dermal reaction can be more or less permanent. The horse is very sensitive to all allergenic factors found in its environment: mold, dust, food allergies.
The only way to identify these dermatoses is to screen for different allergens.
Subsequently, it is essential to limit contact with the various allergens and the consequences (skin irritations) must be treated.
The horse accumulates toxins during competition which will cause muscle stiffness.
The intensity of impacts with the ground or obstacles creates joint and skin inflammation as well as foot pain.
It is essential to relieve the horse so that he can renew his efforts quickly.
Some competitions require the repetition of efforts over several consecutive days and it is essential that the horse is close to its maximum physical integrity in order to optimize its performance.
Arthritis is characterized by inflammation of the horse's joint. Arthritis can be septic or aseptic.
This inflammation can affect all joint components: cartilage, synovium, capsule and bone inflammation.
The clinical signs are joint swelling, more or less significant lameness, even in severe cases leading to loss of support.
Arthritis must be treated quickly to avoid the appearance of irreversible damage.
Osteoarthritis is an untreatable rheumatic disease that affects the horse's joints.
Osteoarthritis is progressive, chronic and irreversible.
The horse's conformation and its sporting use can promote the early appearance of signs of osteoarthritis.
The clinical signs of osteoarthritis are lameness that appears
rather cold associated with joint swelling and synovitis.
The horse, through its use, is subject to various stresses.
It all starts with him being boxed, transported by truck or plane and continues throughout his sporting career.
It is therefore essential to think and find solutions in order to minimize these anxiety-provoking situations.
The use of plants is a valuable asset.
The comfort they provide to the horse allows him to face these different stressful situations while maintaining his calm and all his
On other horses this stress will result in excess “blood” which makes the animal difficult to control.
Here again, after having eliminated any physical problem from the horse, it is necessary to succeed in reducing this pressure which harms its performance.
Chondritis is an inflammation of the cartilage in horses.
It is characterized by inflammation of the joint, pain and significant joint heat.
It frequently concerns foals.
The diagnosis can be made clinically and possibly echographically.
The breakdown appears following significant mechanical stress on the musculoskeletal system.
This significant constraint occurs during over-exertion and therefore a significant force exerted between the muscle mass and the bone structure.
This breakdown is characterized by the rupture of fibers which can be tendon, ligament or muscular, we note the appearance of lameness, local sensitivity as well as deformation.
Strain injuries frequently require a long rest.
The horse is, by its conformation, very sensitive to digestive conditions and in particular to colic.
In fact, the horse has a small stomach and a large colon, very large and folded in on itself.
Due to this particular conformation, the horse is subject to poor digestion and transit disorders appear.
Poor digestion which is characterized by a slowdown in transit and which can lead to displacements or even twisting of the intestine. A diet
controlled, balanced is essential to limit risks.
The diagnosis of colic is initially made by observation of the owner and is confirmed by the veterinarian's clinical examination.
Muscle tear is the third form of strain encountered in horses, after tendon strain and ligament strain.
It appears following violent effort or following trauma; the horse presents a major lameness and the recovery time is very long.
The diagnosis is both clinical and ultrasound.
Lack of appetite is characterized by a refusal of the animal to eat.
This lack of appetite can concern either concentrated foods (pellets, barley, oats, etc.) or fibers (straw, hay, haylage, etc.) depending on the type of refusal and the associated clinical signs, the veterinarian will carry out a differential diagnosis.
Physiological state of the animal characterized by greater sensitivity to attacks from the external environment: viral, bacterial and parasitic.
The mobility and stress to which horses are subjected accentuate this deficiency.
The mare's ovarian cycle can go wrong for different reasons, two of which are more frequently encountered: the persistent corpus luteum (which takes the place of the ovum) and the abnormally long duration of heat which is anovulatory.
These disorders will have an impact on fertility.
Dermatitis is an infection of the dermis which is characterized by a skin reaction with pimples, scaling, and irritation.
These dermatoses can have different origins: parasitic, bacterial, fungal, viral.
These conditions can cause very significant inflammatory reactions: itching, edema and can affect the character of the horse, making it aggressive.
Treatment is never easy, it is essential to carry out scraping in order to optimize the treatment of the dermatosis and to avoid any recurrence.
DER is a common allergic dermatosis in horses.
It is due to a hyper sensitivity of certain horses to the saliva of insects (genus Culicoides).
The clinical signs are seasonal from spring to autumn, the location of the lesions is mainly the line of the back going from the neck (mane) to the base of the tail.
The lesions cause marked alopecia, pruritus, stress and loss of condition.
The diagnosis is made clinically using a scraping.
Foot pain is common in horses.
It is characterized by heat in the feet as well as a lack of amplitude in locomotion.
Foot pain will not necessarily be characterized by lameness but by a lack of amplitude, more or less significant heat and the presence of a digital pulse.
The origin of this pain can be diverse: joint, tendon, bone, ligament.
External factors such as: bad soil, farriery, use can cause foot pain.
The diagnosis is essentially clinical.
Mares are very sensitive during their lives to changes in the size of their ovaries depending on their cycle.
Ovarian activity is sustained between March and the end of
month of September. The ovary which is suspended under the lower back can cause back pain because it is simply held by a ligament.
An increase in weight associated with work creates real discomfort.
In addition, during the cycle, the different hormone levels evolve and a dysfunction in this cycle causes in certain mares
behaviors of nymphomania, stallions, nervousness, even aggressiveness.
With in some mares jets of urine during handling.
The diagnosis of ovarian anomaly is made during various ultrasound scans.
Bacterial disease transmitted by ticks which causes hyperthermia and depression in horses.
However, few horses show clinical signs.
Blood tests help confirm the diagnosis.
A sprain is characterized by damage to one or two ligaments.
This condition is often of traumatic origin or due to over-exertion of the horse such as a breakdown.
It is a common condition in horses.
It is characterized by joint swelling linked to instability.
We also note heat and lameness of greater or lesser importance depending on the intensity of the ligament damage.
The diagnosis is clinical and ultrasound, or even by MRI depending on the location of the affected ligament.
In ultimate cases of serious sprain, it can go as far as a tear of the ligament and at that point the downtime period is much longer and the horse's recovery is not certain.
The bone can undergo trauma, often of accidental origin, which results in a crack or fracture.
The difference between the two lies in the intensity of the lesion and the more or less total damage to the entire bone structure.
During cracks, we will observe a simple, very fine line whereas during fractures, the line is much wider, the incidence is much greater and depending on the location the outcome can even be dramatic.
The diagnosis beyond being clinical is confirmed by radiographic examination.
Laminitis is a foot condition characterized by necrosis of the
soft tissues of the foot.
This necrosis will cause a tilt or descent of the third phalanx.
Laminitis is associated with major lameness as well as a typical position of the horse where the latter leans so as not to lean on its forelegs.
We also note the presence of heat and pain on the feet as well as a digital pulse.
The diagnosis is clinical and is confirmed by radiographic examination.
The recovery time for laminitis is very long and requires suitable, quality farriery.
Gastritis is characterized by inflammation of the lining of the horse's stomach.
This inflammation, in the event of a complication, may progress to the stage of ulcers.
The clinical signs are a decrease in appetite, a horse yawning and the beginnings of colic.
Horse strangles or angina is a bacterial infection caused by streptococcus equi.
It is characterized by swelling and severe inflammation of the mucous membranes of the throat and head as well as enlargement of the lymph nodes.
This pathology is very contagious and streptococci can be isolated either in nasal secretions or in the lymph nodes.
Strangles mainly affects young people who have weaker immunity.
Transmission occurs by contact either direct between animals or indirectly by humans, walls, buckets and any object on which throwing
can be deposited.
The clinical signs are significant hyperthermia,
purulent discharge, decreased appetite and weak cough.
This infection is generally quite mild, however some serious forms have been described.
It is characterized by the contamination of the animal by bacteria, these bacteria can be found in the blood, joints, lungs and various other organs of the horse.
As a general rule, hyperthermia and a decrease in appetite are observed.
Depending on the location, additional clinical signs are
described according to each infection and a differential diagnosis will be carried out by the veterinarian.
It is characterized by the contamination of the animal by viruses, they can be found in numerous organs of the horse depending on each type of virus.
Viral infections are mainly observed in the respiratory tract, digestive tract and reproductive tract of the horse.
These viruses are also found on the skin, in the nervous system and also in the circulatory system.
Viral infections present with a wide variety of clinical signs and can have dramatic consequences in horses, including the death of the animal.
Common clinical signs are depression and fever.
Joint inflammation is characterized by inflammation of the joint.
This inflammation is visible externally by swelling.
This swelling can be general around the joint or, on the contrary, very localized and only concern the joint capsule or the synovial fluid with the appearance of lumps.
Depending on its intensity, joint inflammation can cause possible lameness.
The horse has inflammation of the deep respiratory tract.
This inflammation can be accompanied by superinfection but we are interested here in non-infected chronic bronchitis.
This inflammation of the bronchi which can lead to fibrosis
and emphysema causes major breathing difficulties in horses and an inability to participate in sporting activity.
Inflammation of the sheaths is characterized by a slight swelling of the entire tendon structure; this inflammation can be caused by a minor dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system or an abnormality of conformation and farriery.
The quality of the working floors and the effort required also
an impact on the appearance of inflammation of the tendon sheaths.
Renal failure is characterized by a dysfunction of the kidney which is a real filtration organ.
This dysfunction could create damage to the organ and an overload of toxins in the horse's blood, in extreme cases leading to its death.
The clinical signs are difficulty urinating, hyperthermia, the appearance of ulcers in the mucous membranes of the mouth, congestion of the mucous membranes.
The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed by blood tests and possibly by an ultrasound of the kidney.
The horse's respiratory system is extremely sensitive to the environmental factors in which it lives: high levels of dust, mold and bacteria, poorly ventilated stalls that are often too hot,
sudden changes in temperature, ingestion of water that is too cold, etc.
Clinical signs are cough when boxing and working, sensitivity to palpation of the larynx, lack of appetite, and febrile state.
The definitive diagnosis is made by fibroscopy.
Good integrity of the respiratory system is essential for good
Infectious disease transmitted by the urine of rodents which carry the leptospira germ.
This infection is regularly characterized by an absence of clinical signs even though horses are seropositive.
However, during an acute attack, we observe hyperthermia, anorexia, orange coloring of the mucous membranes, digestive signs (diarrhea and constipation).
In the chronic form, we observe repeated episodes of fever, weight loss, fatigue, edema of the limbs and especially ocular signs with uveitis.
Screening is carried out by taking a blood test with serology.
Lymphangitis is an inflammation of the lymphatic system in horses.
This inflammation causes an accumulation of lymph in the horse's limbs which can affect either the front legs or the hind legs or both.
Lymphangitis can be acute or chronic.
In acute cases, the cause is frequently injury.
cutaneous with bacterial and viral superinfection.
In chronic cases the cause may be trauma such as contusion.
When acute lymphangitis is poorly managed, the horse may present with a lymphatic system disorder that becomes permanent.
Lymphangitis can be asymptomatic at the locomotor level or, on the contrary, cause significant lameness.
Infectious disease transmitted by ticks which causes a wide variety of clinical signs with skin erythema, anorexia, loss of fitness, hyperthermia.
Secondly, we can observe locomotor disorders with sensitive and hot edematous joints (arthritis) and more rarely we observe some cases with nervous and ocular signs.
A definitive diagnosis can be made by taking a blood test.
Tendon roll is characterized by deformation around the tendon with fluid swelling.
These adjustments may concern the flexor digitorum superficialis or the flexor digitorum profundus.
They are generally observed at the level of the fetlock or in the hollow of the pastern.
We also note some tendon knobs at the hocks.
The diagnosis is a clinical and ultrasound diagnosis.
Myositis is characterized by inflammation of muscle tissue.
This inflammation can be more or less important, it is linked either to too intense an effort, or to a lack of condition of the horse or to the compensation of locomotor, cardiac, respiratory or muscular pain.
Clinical signs range from simple stiffness to an inability to move.
The diagnosis is clinical and is confirmed by a blood test.
The downtime is more or less long.
Osteitis is characterized by inflammation of the bone which most frequently affects the horse's foot.
The horse then takes analgesic positions to relieve itself.
Heat is often observed.
The diagnosis is made by an x-ray examination or an MRI.
This bone pain causes a reduction in performance and eventually lameness.
Limb edema is characterized by swelling of one or more limbs.
This inflammation can involve the lymphatic system or the skin system.
It is often caused by trauma or a viral infection,
bacterial or parasitic in horses.
Bone edema is characterized by inflammation of the bone at the level of its cortex and its medulla, it is caused by a repetition of
microtrauma or following mechanical stress such as tendinitis of the suspensor insertion.
The diagnosis of this condition is recent and is made possible thanks to MRI.
Pulmonary edema is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of water in the lungs.
The horse presents serious difficulties in breathing, in fact oxygen cannot pass between the air and the alveoli since there is fluid over an entire part of the lung so oxygenation is very limited.
There is also a flow of foam from the nose.
The diagnosis is clinical and fibroscopy.
Osteochondrosis is common in sports and racing horses, it affects the cartilage as well as the subchondral bone.
It is characterized by the appearance of more or less free osteocartilage fragments in the joints or by slight deformations of the bone.
The clinical signs are joint distension with possible
presence of lameness.
The diagnosis is radiographic.
It seems that breeding conditions, nutritional balance and genetics have a real influence on the appearance of osteochondrosis.
Parasitic disease (babesia) transmitted by the bite of a tick which lodges in the horse's red blood cells, causing fatigue and severe anemia.
The clinical signs are hyperthermia frequently above 40°C as well as a lemon yellow coloring of the animal's ocular and oral mucous membranes, sometimes with the presence of small red spots.
The horse also presents with dark coloring of the urine (hemoglobinuria) and signs of colic.
In chronic forms we observe a drop in appetite, fatigue and weight loss in the horse.
The definitive diagnosis will be based on microscopic observation or a blood test several weeks after the attack in order to avoid a false negative result.
The horse has very sensitive skin tissue, the slightest damage is likely to become infected and can have serious consequences for the animal.
It is therefore essential to take seriously all injuries presented by a horse.
In the event of a well-localized superficial injury, affecting only the dermis, superinfection is unlikely.
On the other hand, irritations such as mud fever systematically become superinfected and can be complicated to manage.
Box hygiene, the quality of care and their frequency are the determining elements for good healing.
Podophyllitis is characterized by inflammation of the laminated portion of the reticular tissue of the horse's foot.
Depending on its stage, podophyllitis will resolve or cause laminitis.
The origin of simple podophyllitis can be linked to poorly adapted or poorly performed farriery or following a trauma such as a show jumping session on bad ground.
The horse presents with a more or less significant lameness, heat in the feet, and a digital pulse.
The diagnosis can be made clinically or by magnetic resonance.
The horse is a sporting animal and like any athlete it requires specific preparation before the competition.
This specific preparation must be carried out with conditioning work like any runner and with technical work, specific to each discipline.
Concerning the conditioning work, it must be adapted to the effort required during the competition.
A lack of condition can lead to poor performance and can
be the cause of damage to the musculoskeletal system.
The technical preparation of the horse must include all the exercises necessary for its training while taking into account its psychological and mental integrity.
The horse is an animal predisposed to sporting activity.
Therefore, any cardiac abnormality is detrimental to a normal sporting career.
Certain pathologies such as heart murmurs may have no impact on the horse's performance, but significant heart murmurs, cardiac arrhythmias and pericarditis are frequently the cause of the end of sporting careers.
In order to limit cardiac suffering, it is essential to carry out high-quality conditioning work.
The diagnosis of cardiac anomaly is often discovered incidentally; it will be confirmed by additional examinations such as ultrasound and electrocardiogram.
After an intense effort, the horse must have a recovery cycle which allows it to regain all of its physical and mental capacities as quickly as possible.
This recovery work must be adapted to each horse according to its musculoskeletal system so that it does not appear as an additional effort.
You should never anticipate the horse's return to intensive work.
At the risk of causing injury to the animal.
Muscle stiffness is characterized by a horse that often takes a long time to warm up to find satisfactory locomotion.
This muscular stiffness, which is frequently compared to back stiffness, is often linked to back joint pathologies.
The diagnosis is clinical, possibly x-rays and a blood test can rule out myositis.
Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EPH) is a common condition in racing and sport horses.
The bleeding can be more or less heavy and can come from different parts of the respiratory system.
It is essential to visualize the origin of this bleeding using an endoscope: nasal cavity, sinuses, larynx, guttural pockets, trachea or pulmonary alveoli.
The bleeding causes the horse to be unable to continue its sporting activity; treatment is mandatory.
Specific training must be adapted.
Depending on the origin of the bleeding, the prognosis will be more or less favorable.
Liver overload is characterized by a dysfunction of the liver which is a real cleansing organ.
This dysfunction could create damage to the organ as well as an accumulation of toxins in this organ and especially this dysfunction
can interfere with the major role of the liver in synthesizing noble molecules in horses.
The clinical signs are often vague but we observe a lack of appetite, weight loss, fatigue.
In the event of a complication, this liver overload will lead to liver failure with often irreversible damage to the organ.
Liver overload causes a change in liver enzyme levels that can be measured during a blood test.
The periosteum is a thin covering that surrounds the bone.
During trauma or overload, the periosteum becomes inflamed or separates from the bone structure and the bone reacts by producing bone material to fill the space between the bone and the periosteum.
There is always warmth and pain in the area of the suros.
The lameness is almost permanent, of varying intensity.
Depending on the location of the suros, the latter can create tendon injuries through friction.
The diagnosis is clinical and radiographic and the downtime is generally quite long.
Joint synovitis is the result of inflammation of the synovial fluid; the synovial fluid loses its mechanical properties, namely viscosity and elasticity.
During synovitis, synovial fluid is produced in large quantities, it loses its viscosity, becoming very liquid and it becomes yellow in color, a sign of inflammation.
Tendonitis is characterized by inflammation of the tendon.
It is either of traumatic origin or the result of compensation by the horse.
The tendon injury may be more or less significant.
We can go from a simple inflammation and thickening of the tendon to a modification of the structure of the tendon with a tear of the tendons.
Depending on the type of tendon concerned (perforated, perforating, suspensory, etc.) and the importance of the lesion, the horse may or may not present with lameness; the diagnosis is not always obvious because sometimes no deformation is visible.
The definitive diagnosis will be an ultrasound or magnetic resonance diagnosis.
Gastric ulcer is characterized by damage to the lining of the horse's stomach.
The horse has the particularity of producing hydrochloric acid which, upon prolonged contact with the mucous membrane, causes damage to it.
Ulcers are often asymptomatic in horses and affect a huge proportion of equines.
External factors such as food, stress, transport, competition increase the risk of ulcers appearing.
In serious cases of ulcers, the horse exhibits colic after refusing to feed, which can be serious.
The definitive diagnosis is made using gastroscopy.